“Talking” to our immune system



GG probiotic “talks” to our immune system

The human immune system in the small and large intestines can differentiate between different strains of “good” probiotic bacteria and will only be stimulated and influenced by certain strains.

Research has found that LACTOGG®’s probiotic can attach tightly to the intestinal surface cells and be recognised by the immune system. It can communicate with immune cells either directly or indirectly using the intestinal surface cells as “middlemen”. The ability to “talk” to the human immune system makes it possible for it to influence the immune system's development and performance from the time the baby starts life in the womb to adulthood.

When the immune cells in the intestinal tract recognise the GG probiotic, they receive signals from this unique bacterium.  These cell-to-cell signals stimulate and regulate our whole immune system, not only in the gastrointestinal tract, but also in other parts of the body such as the nose, throat, lungs, blood and skin.



GG probiotic regulates and balances the immune system

LACTOGG®’s probiotic does not stimulate the immune system in an indiscriminate or chaotic manner. The degree of immune stimulation by the GG probiotic is not as intense as that of harmful germs. This means that, unlike harmful germs, immune stimulation by LACTOGG®  does not produce inflammation which harms the body.  Instead, it only enhances the immune system for it to protect the body more effectively.

The job of keeping the immune system under control lies with “regulator” immune cells called the Treg cells. These regulator cells are essential to ensure the immune system knows its limits of inflammatory response. LACTOGG® helps the immune system to develop these essential Treg cells.

Treg cells perform their job of checking and balancing the immune system by ensuring the immune system is stimulated to provide enough inflammation to fight and heal itself yet it is prevented from over-stimulation and harming the body.

GG probiotic’s ability to induce Treg cells to do their check and balance job is clearly demonstrated in a study involving immune response to a common virus called rotavirus.  This virus causes watery diarrhoea in animals and humans.  The study found that taking the GG probiotic improved the immune response to anti-rotavirus vaccination but prevented too much inflammation from occurring during rotavirus infection.

Many studies have also found that LACTOGG®’s probiotic can calm down inflammation due to allergy while it stimulates the immune response in non-allergic persons.

Scientists have conducted tests on how LACTOGG®’s unique probiotic affects different cells and different signal pathways of the immune system and how the GG probiotic can benefit immunity.




References:

Vargas García CE et al. Piliation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG promotes adhesion, phagocytosis, and cytokine modulation in macrophages. Appl Environ Microbiol 2015;81:2050-2062 

Tygat HLP et al. Probioic gut microbiota isolate interacts with dendritic cells via glycosylated heterotrimeric pili.PLoS ONE 2016;11(3):e0151824.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0151824

Veckman V et al. Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus rhamnosus differentially induce maturation and production of Th1-type cytokines and chemokines in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol 2004;75(5):764-771

Miettinen M et al. Live Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Steptoccocus pyogenes differentially regulate Toll-like receptor (TLR) gene expression in human primary macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 2008;84:1092-1100

Donkor ON et al. Cytokine profile and induction of T helper type 17 and regulatory T cells by human peripheral mononuclear cells after microbial exposure. Clin Exp Immunol 2012;167(2):282-295

Chattha KS et al. Divergent immunomodulating effects of probiotics on T cell responses to oral attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and virulent human rotavirus infection in a neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model. J Immunol 2013;191:2446-2456

Pelto L et al. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-1479

Fong FLY et al. Immunomodulation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)-derived soluble factors on antigen-presenting cells of healthy blood donors. Sci Rep 2016;6:22845

Viljanen M et al. Probiotic effects on faecal inflammatory markers and faecal IgA in food allergic atopic eczema/dermatitis syndrome infants. Pediatr Allergy and Immunol 2005;16:65-71

Ghadimi D et al. Effects of probiotic bacteria and their genomic DNA on TH1/TH2-cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy and allergic subjects. Immunobiology  2008;213:677-692








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